industrialism, industrialization
Both words denote the transition in methods of production which has been responsible for the vastly increased wealth-creating capacity of modern societies compared with traditional systems. It should be noted that, although industrialization is generally thought of as something affecting the manufacturing of goods, it is reasonable and indeed necessary to apply the term industrial to modern methods of raising productivity in agriculture and other industrial sectors, and in administrative contexts. It is important to add that industrialism is not the same thing as capitalism , for although capitalism was the first and principal agent of industrialization, it is not the only one. Capitalism pre-dated industrialization and arguably varies more in fundamental form over time and from society to society.
There has been a reasonable degree of agreement about typical features of industrialism but less about which ones are essential. Typical characteristics, all of which are discussed elsewhere in this dictionary, include a division of labour; cultural rationalization; a factory system and mechanization; the universal application of scientific methods to problem-solving; time discipline and deferred gratification; bureaucracy and administration by rules; and a socially and geographically mobile labour-force.
However, any such list of features is bound to raise the question whether a particular item is the result of industrialism as such, or should be attributed either to the coexistence of capitalism or the fact that capitalist societies were the first to industrialize. Much the same might be said of several other features of modernity which are variously attributed to capitalism or industrialization, including the indefinite expansion of markets, the growth of the money economy and the calculating outlook behind scientific rationalism, and the industrial spirit itself. See also industrial sector ; industrial society.

Dictionary of sociology. 2013.

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  • industrialism — INDUSTRIALÍSM s.n. 1. Orientare în gândirea economică care preconizează dezvoltarea industriei şi ridicarea acesteia la nivelul de ramură principală a economiei. 2. Teorie economică care acordă preponderenţă industriei în activitatea economică.… …   Dicționar Român

  • industrialism — in‧dus‧tri‧al‧is‧m [ɪnˈdʌstriəlɪzm] noun [uncountable] ECONOMICS the system by which a society gets its wealth through industry: • Does industrialism raise or lower the living standards of the working class? * * * industrialism UK US… …   Financial and business terms

  • Industrialism — In*dus tri*al*ism, n. 1. Devotion to industrial pursuits; labor; industry. J. S. Mill. [1913 Webster] 2. The principles or policy applicable to industrial pursuits or organized labor. [1913 Webster] Industrialism must not confounded with… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • industrialism — (n.) 1831, from INDUSTRIAL (Cf. industrial) + ISM (Cf. ism). Cf. Fr. industrialisme (Saint Simon, 1823) …   Etymology dictionary

  • industrialism — ► NOUN ▪ a social or economic system in which manufacturing industries are prevalent …   English terms dictionary

  • industrialism — [in dus′trē əl iz΄əm] n. social and economic organization characterized by large industries, machine production, concentration of workers in cities, etc …   English World dictionary

  • industrialism — [[t]ɪndʌ̱striəlɪzəm[/t]] N UNCOUNT Industrialism is the state of having an economy based on industry …   English dictionary

  • industrialism — noun Date: 1831 social organization in which industries and especially large scale industries are dominant …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • industrialism — /in dus tree euh liz euhm/, n. an economic organization of society built largely on mechanized industry rather than agriculture, craftsmanship, or commerce. [1825 35; INDUSTRIAL + ISM] * * * …   Universalium

  • industrialism — noun The socio economic system based upon the industrial production of manufactured goods, rather than on agriculture …   Wiktionary

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